1Then I turned and saw all the oppressions which take place under the sun; and, behold, there were the tears of the oppressed, and they had no comforter; and from the hand of their oppressors there was violence, and they had no comforter.
2Therefore I praised the dead, who have been long ago dead, more than the living, who are yet alive.
3Yea, better than both of them is he who hath not yet been, who hath not seen the evil work which is done under the sun.
4And I saw all labor, and all success in work, that for this a man is envied by his neighbor. This also is vanity, and striving after wind.
5The fool foldeth his hands together and eateth his own flesh.
6Better is a hand full of quietness, than both hands full of weariness and striving after wind.
7Then I turned and saw other vanity under the sun.
8There is one who is alone, and no one with him; yea, he hath neither son nor brother; yet is there no end to all his labor, and his eye is not satisfied with riches. “For whom, then saith he, do I labor and deprive myself of good?” This also is vanity; yea, it is an evil thing!
9Two are better than one, because they have a good reward for their labor.
10For if they fall, the one will lift his fellow up; but woe to him who is alone when he falleth, and hath not another to help him up!
11Again, if two lie together, then they have heat; but how can one be warm alone?
12And if an enemy prevail against one, two shall withstand him; and a threefold cord is not quickly broken.
13Better is a child poor but wise, than a king old and foolish, who will no more be admonished.
14For out of prison cometh forth such a one to reign; for in his own kingdom he was born a poor man.
15I saw that all the living, who walk under the sun, were with the child who stood up in his stead.
16There was no end to all the people before whom he went forth; yet they that come afterwards shall not rejoice in him. This also is vanity, and striving after wind.